Rational pricing is the assumption that asset prices and hence asset pricing models will teoria opțiunilor reale este o combinație the arbitrage-free price of the asset, as any deviation from this price will be "arbitraged away".
This assumption is useful in pricing fixed income securities, particularly bonds, and is fundamental to the pricing of derivative instruments. Economic equilibrium is, in general, a state in which economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced, and, in the absence of external influences these equilibrium values of economic variables will not change.
General equilibrium deals with the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that a set of prices exists that will result in an overall equilibrium. This is in contrast to partial equilibrium, which only analyzes single markets.
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The two concepts are linked as follows: where market prices do not allow for profitable arbitrage, i. Intuitively, this may be seen by considering that where an arbitrage opportunity does exist, then prices can be expected to change, and are therefore not in equilibrium.
The immediate, and formal, extension of this idea, the fundamental theorem of asset pricingshows that where markets are as described —and are additionally implicitly and correspondingly complete —one may then make financial decisions by constructing a risk neutral probability measure corresponding to the market. The formal derivation will proceed by arbitrage arguments.